It is about two miles long and a little over one mile wide, with a total land area of 2.2 square miles. Its beach rim, for the most part is15 to 20 feet high, encloses a basin. It is a sandy, coral island with a narrow fringing reef.
The refuge is managed primarily as nesting, roosting, and foraging habit at for seabirds and shorebirds. The vegetation is mainly grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs due to scant rainfall. Jarvis Island is rich in guano. Large numbers of fish are found in pools on its reef.
Uninhabited. Like Howland and Baker Islands, Jarvis Island has been uninhabited since 1942, when colonists from the United States mainland and Honolulu, established there by the Department of the Interior in 1936, were evacuated following sea and air attacks by Japanese forces.
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