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Compact of Free Association Act of 1985



COMPACT OF FREE ASSOCIATION ACT OF 1985

U.S. PUBLIC LAW 99-239 - JAN. 14, 1986

[courtesy of RMI Government]

U.S. Public Law 99-239
99th Congress

Joint Resolution
To approve the "Compact of Free Association", and for other purposes.

PREAMBLE

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS AND THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA,

Affirming that their Governments and their relationships as Governments are founded upon respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and that the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands have the right to enjoy self-government; and

Affirming the common interests of the United States of America and the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in creating close and mutually beneficial relationships through three free and voluntary associations of their respective Governments; and

Affirming the interest of the Government of the United States in promoting the economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; and

Recognizing that their previous relationship has been based upon the International Trusteeship System of the United Nations Charter, and in particular Article 76 of the Charter; and that pursuant to Article 76 of the Charter, the peoples of the Trust Territory have progressively developed their institutions of self-government, and that in the exercise of their sovereign right to self-determination they have, through their freely-expressed wishes, adopted Constitutions appropriate to their particular circumstances; and

Recognizing their common desire to terminate the Trusteeship and establish three new government-to-government relationships each of which is in accordance with a new political status based on the freely-expressed wishes of peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and appropriate to their particular circumstances; and

Recognizing that the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands have and retain their sovereignty and their sovereign right to self-determination and the inherent right to adopt and amend their own Constitutions and forms of government and that the approval of the entry of their respective Governments into this Compact of Free Association by the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands constitutes an exercise of their sovereign right to self-determination;

NOW, THEREFORE, AGREE to enter into relationships of free association which provide a full measure of self-government for the peoples of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia; and

FURTHER AGREE that the relationships of free association derive from and are as set forth in this Compact; and that, during such relationships of free association, the respective rights and responsibilities of the Government of the United States and the Governments of the freely associated states of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in regard to these relationships of free association derive from and are as set forth in this Compact.


TITLE ONE
GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
Article I
Self-Government

Section 111

The peoples of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, acting through the Governments established under their respective Constitutions, are self-governing.

Article II
Foreign Affairs

Section 121

(a) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia have the capacity to conduct foreign affairs and shall do so in their own name and right, except as otherwise provided in this Compact.

(b) The foreign affairs capacity of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia includes:

(1) the conduct of foreign affairs relating to law of the sea and marine resources matters, including the harvesting, conservation, exploration or exploitation of living and non-living resources from the sea, seabed or subsoil to the full extent recognized under international law;

(2) the conduct of their commercial, diplomatic, consular, economic, trade, banking, postal, civil aviation, communications, and cultural relations, including negotiations for the receipt of developmental loans and grants and the conclusion of arrangements with other governments and international and intergovernmental organizations, including any matters specially benefiting their individual citizens.

(c) The Government of the United States recognizes that the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia have the capacity to enter into, in their own name and right, treaties and other international agreements with governments and regional and international organizations.

(d) In the conduct of their foreign affairs, the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia confirm that they shall act in accordance with principles of international law and shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means.

Section 122

The Government of the United States shall support applications by the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia for membership or other participation in regional or international organizations as may be mutually agreed. The Government of the United States agrees to accept for training and instruction at the Foreign Service Institute, established under 22 U.S.C. 4021, citizens of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. The qualifications of candidates for such training and instruction and all other terms and conditions of participation by citizens of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in Foreign Service Institute programs shall be as mutually agreed between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 123

(a) In recognition of the authority and responsibility of the Government of the United States under Title Three, the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall consult, in the conduct of their foreign affairs, with the Government of the United States.

(b) In recognition of the respective foreign affairs capacities of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, the Government of the United States, in the conduct of its foreign affairs, shall consult with the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia on matters which the Government of the United States regards as relating to or affecting any such Government.

Section 124

The Government of the United States may assist or act on behalf of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia in the area of foreign affairs as may be requested and mutually agreed from time to time. The Government of the United States shall not be responsible to third parties for the actions of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia undertaken with the assistance or through the agency of the Government of the United States pursuant to this Section unless expressly agreed.

Section 125

The Government of the United States shall not be responsible for nor obligated by any actions taken by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia in the area of foreign affairs, except as may from time to time be expressly agreed.

Section 126

At the request of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and subject to the consent of the receiving state, the Government of the United States shall extend consular assistance on the same basis as for citizens of the United States to citizens of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia for travel outside the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, the United States and its territories and possessions.

Section 127

Except as otherwise provided in this Compact or its related agreements, all obligations, responsibilities, rights and benefits of the Government of the United States as Administering Authority which have resulted from the application pursuant to the Trusteeship Agreement of any treaty or other international agreement to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact are no longer assumed and enjoyed by the Government of the United States.

Article III
Communications

Section 131

(a) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia have full authority and responsibility to regulate their respective domestic and foreign communications, and the Government of the United States shall provide communications assistance in accordance with the terms of a separate agreement which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact, and such agreement shall remain in effect until such time as any election is made pursuant to Section 131(b) and which shall provide for the following:

(1) the Government of the United States remains the sole administration entitled to make notification to the International Frequency Registration Board of the International Telecommunications Union of frequency assignments to radio communications stations respectively in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia; and to submit to the International Frequency Registration Board seasonal schedules for the broadcasting stations respectively in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in the bands allocated exclusively to the broadcasting service between 5,950 and 26,100 kHz and in any other additional frequency bands that may be allocated to use by high frequency broadcasting stations; and

(2) the United States Federal Communications Commission has jurisdiction, pursuant to the Communications Act of 1934, 47 U.S.C. 151 et. seq., and the Communications Satellite Act of 1962, 47 U.S.C. 721 et. seq., over all domestic and foreign communications services furnished by means of satellite earth terminal stations where such stations are owned or operated by United States common carriers and are located in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

(b) The Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia may elect at any time to undertake the functions enumerated in Section 131(a) and previously performed by the Government of the United States. Upon such election, the Government of the United States shall so notify the International Frequency Registration Board and shall take such other actions as may be necessary to transfer to the electing Government the notification authority referred to in Section 131(a) and all rights deriving from the previous exercise of any such notification authority by the Government of the United States.

Section 132

The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall permit the Government of the United States to operate telecommunications services in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia to the extent necessary to fulfill the obligations of the Government of the United States under this Compact in accordance with the terms of separate agreements which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.

Article IV
Immigration

Section 141

(a) Any person in the following categories may enter inter lawfully engage in occupations, and establish residence as a non-immigrant in the United States and its territories and possessions without regard to paragraphs (14), (20), and (26) of section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. 1182(a) (14), (20), and (26):

(1) A person who, on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact, is a citizen of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, as defined in Title 53 of the Trust Territory Code in force on January 1, 1979, and has become a citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia;

(2) A person who acquires the citizenship of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia at birth, on or after the effective date of the respective Constitution;

(3) A naturalized citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia who has been an actual resident there for not less than five years after attaining such naturalization and who holds a certificate of actual residence; or

(4) A person entitled to citizenship in the Marshall Islands by lineal descent whose name is included in a list to be furnished by the Government of the Marshall Islands to the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and any descendants of such persons, provided that such person holds a certificate of lineal descent issued by the Government of the Marshall Islands.

Such persons shall be considered to have the permission of the Attorney General of the United States to accept employment in the United States.

(b) The right of such persons to establish habitual residence in a territory or possession of the United States may, however, be subjected to non-discriminatory limitations provided for:

(1) in statutes or regulations of the United States; or

(2) in those statutes or regulations of the territory or possession concerned which are authorized by the laws of the United States.

(c) Section 141(a) does not confer on a citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia the right to establish the residence necessary for naturalization under the Immigration and Nationality Act, or to petition for benefits for alien relatives under that Act. Section 141(a), however, shall not prevent a citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia from otherwise acquiring such rights or lawful permanent resident alien status in the United States.

Section 142

(a) Any citizen or national of the United States may enter inter lawfully engage in occupations, and reside in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, subject to the rights of those Governments to deny entry to or deport any such citizen or national as an undesirable alien. A citizen or national of the United States may establish habitual residence or domicile in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia only in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction in which habitual residence or domicile is sought.

(b) With respect to the subject matter of this Section, the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall accord to citizens and nationals of the United States treatment no less favorable than that accorded to citizens of other countries; any denial of entry to or deportation of a citizen or national of the United States as an undesirable alien must be pursuant to reasonable statutory grounds.

Section 143

(a) The privileges set forth in Sections 141 and 142 shall not apply to any person who takes an affirmative step to preserve or acquire a citizenship or nationality other than that of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia or the United States.

(b) Every person having the privileges set forth in Sections 141 and 142 who possesses a citizenship or nationality other than that of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia or the United States ceases to have these privileges two years after the effective date of this Compact, or within six months after becoming 21 years of age, whichever comes later, unless such person executes an oath of renunciation of that other citizenship or nationality.

Section 144

(a) A citizen or national of the United States who, after notification to the Government of the United States of an intention to employ such person by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, commences employment with such Government shall not be deprived of his United States nationality pursuant to Section 349(a)(2) and (a)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. 1481 (a)(2) and (a)(4).

(b) Upon such notification by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, the Government of the United States may consult with or provide information to the notifying Government concerning the prospective employee, subject to the provisions of the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a.

(c) The requirement of prior notification shall not apply to those citizens or nationals of the United States who are employed by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia on the effective date of this Compact with respect to the positions held by them at that time.

Article V
Representation

Section 151

Relations between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands shall be conducted in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. In addition to diplomatic missions and representation, the Governments may establish and maintain other offices and designate other representatives on terms and in locations as may be mutually agreed.

Note: This section amended effective Aug. 24, 1989. Previous text is available here.

Section 152

Note: This section deleted by amendment effective Aug. 24, 1989. Previous text is available here.

Section 153

(a) Any citizen or national of the United States who, after consultation between the designating Government and the Government of the United States, is designated by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia as its agent, shall enjoy exemption from the requirements of the laws of the United States relating to the registration of foreign agents. The Government of the United States shall promptly comply with a request for consultation made by the prospective designating Government. During the course of the consultation, the Government of the United States may, in its discretion, and subject to the provisions of the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a, transmit such information concerning the prospective designee as may be available to it to the prospective designating Government.

(b) Any citizen or national of the United States may be employed by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia to represent to foreign governments, officers or agents thereof the positions of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, without regard to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 953.

Article VI
Environmental Protection

Section 161

The Governments of the United States, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia declare that it is their policy to promote efforts to prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and to enrich understanding of the natural resources of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. In order to carry out this policy, the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia agree to the following mutual and reciprocal undertakings.

(a) The Government of the United States:

(1) shall continue to apply the environmental controls in effect on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact to those of its continuing activities subject to Section 161(a)(2), unless and until those controls are modified under Sections 161(a)(3) and 161(a)(4);

(2) shall apply the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 83 Stat. 852, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq., to its activities under the Compact and its related agreements as if the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia were the United States;

(3) shall comply also, in the conduct of any activity requiring the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement under Section 161(a)(2), with standards substantively similar to those required by the following laws of the United States, taking into account the particular environments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia: the Endangered Species Act of 1973, 87 Stat, 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.; the Clean Air Act, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U,S,C. Supp. 7401 et seq.; the Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.; the Ocean Dumping Act (Title I of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), 86 Stat. 1053, 33 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.; the Toxic Substances Control Act, 90 Stat. 2003, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.; the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, 90 Stat. 2796, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.; and such other environmental protection laws of the United States as may be mutually agreed from time to time with the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia; and

(4) shall develop, prior to conducting any activity requiring the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement under Section 161(a)(2), appropriate mechanisms, including regulations or other judicially reviewable standards and procedures, to regulate its activities governed by Section 161(a)(3) in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in a manner appropriate to the special governmental relationship set forth in this Compact. The agencies of the Government of the United States designated by law to administer the laws set forth in Section 161(a)(3) shall participate as appropriate in the development of any regulation, standard or procedure under this Section, and the Government of the United States shall provide the affected Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia with the opportunity to comment during such development.

(b) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall develop standards and procedures to protect their environments. As a reciprocal obligation to the undertakings of the Government of the United States under this Article, the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, taking into account their particular environments, shall develop standards for environmental protection substantively similar to those required of the Government of the United States by Section 161(a)(3) prior to their conducting activities in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, respectively, substantively equivalent to activities conducted there by the Government of the United States and, as a further reciprocal obligation, shall enforce those standards.

(c) Section 161(a), including any standard or procedure applicable thereunder, and Section 161(b) may be modified or superseded in whole or in part by agreement of the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

(d) In the event that an Environmental Impact Statement is no longer required under the laws of the United States for major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, the regulatory regime established under Sections 161(a)(3) and 161(a)(4) shall continue to apply to such activities of the Government of the United States until amended by mutual agreement.

(e) The President of the United States may exempt any of the activities of the Government of the United States under this Compact and its related agreements from any environmental standard or procedure which may be applicable under Sections 161(a)(3) and 161(a)(4) if the President determines it to be in the paramount interest of the Government of the United States to do so, consistent with Title Three of this Compact and the obligations of the Government of the United States under international law. Prior to any decision pursuant to this subsection, the views of the affected Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall be sought and considered to the extent practicable. If the President grants such an exemption, to the extent practicable a report with his reasons for granting such exemption shall be given promptly to the affected Government.

(f) The laws of the United States referred to in Section 161(a)(3) shall apply to the activities of the Government of the United States under this Compact and its related agreements only to the extent provided for in this Section.

Section 162

The Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia may bring an action for judicial review of any administrative agency action or any activity of the Government of the United States pursuant to Sections 161(a), 161(d) or 161(e) or for enforcement of the obligations of the Government of the United States arising thereunder. The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have jurisdiction over such action or activity, and over actions brought under Section 172(b) which relate to the activities of the Government of the United States and its officers and employees, governed by Section 161, provided that:

(a) such actions may only be civil actions for any appropriate civil relief other than punitive damages against the Government of the United States or, where required by law, its officers in their official capacity; no criminal actions may arise under this Section;

(b) actions brought pursuant to this Section may be initiated only by the Government concerned;

(c) administrative agency actions arising under Section 161 shall be reviewed pursuant to the standard of judicial review set forth in 5 U.S.C. 706;

(d) the District Court shall have jurisdiction to issue all necessary processes, and the Government of the United States agrees to submit itself to the jurisdiction of the court; decisions of the District Court shall be reviewable in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit or the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, respectively, or in the United States Supreme Court as provided by the laws of the United States;

(e) the judicial remedy provided in this Section shall be the exclusive remedy for the judicial review or enforcement of the obligations of the Government of the United States under this Article and actions brought under Section 172(b) which relate to the activities of the Government of the United States and its officers and employees governed by Section 161; and

(f) in actions pursuant to this Section, the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall be treated as if they were United States citizens.

Section 163

(a) For the purpose of gathering data necessary to study the environmental effects of activities of the Government of the United States subject to the requirements of this Article, the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall be granted access to facilities operated by the Government of the United States in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, to the extent necessary for this purpose, except to the extent such access would unreasonably interfere with the exercise of the authority and responsibility of the Government of the United States under Title Three.

(b) The Government of the United States, in turn, shall be granted access to the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia for the purpose of gathering data necessary to discharge its obligations under this Article, except to the extent such access would unreasonably interfere with the exercise of the authority and responsibility of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia under Title One, and to the extent necessary for this purpose shall be granted access to documents and other information to the same extent similar access is provided those Governments under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552.

(c) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall not impede efforts by the Government of the United States to comply with applicable standards and procedures.

Article VII
General Legal Provisions

Section 171

Except as provided in this Compact or its related agreements, the application of the laws of the United States to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands by virtue of the Trusteeship Agreement ceases with respect to the Marshall Islands and Agreement ceases with respect to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia as of the effective date of this Compact.

Section 172

(a) Every citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia who is not a resident of the United States shall enjoy the rights and remedies under the laws of the United States enjoyed by any non-resident alien.

(b) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia and every citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall be considered a "person" within the meaning of the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, and of the judicial review provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 701-706, except that only the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia may seek judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act or judicial enforcement under the Freedom of Information Act when such judicial review or enforcement relates to the activities of the Government of the United States governed by Sections 161 and 162.

Section 173

The Governments of the United States, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia agree to adopt and enforce such measures, consistent with this Compact and its related agreements, as may be necessary to protect the personnel, property, installations, services, programs and official archives and documents maintained by the Government of the United States in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia pursuant to this Compact and its related agreements and by those Governments in the United States pursuant to this Compact and its related agreements.

Section 174

Except as otherwise provided in this Compact and its related agreements:

(a) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall be immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the United States, and the Government of the United States shall be immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

(b) The Government of the United States accepts responsibility for and shall pay:

(1) any unpaid money judgment rendered by the High Court of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands against the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or the Government of the United States with regard to any cause of action arising as a result of acts or omissions of the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or the Government of the United States prior to the effective date of this Compact;

(2) any claim settled by the claimant and the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but not paid as of the effective date of this Compact; and

(3) settlement of any administrative claim or of any action before a court of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, pending as of the effective date of this Compact, against the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or the Government of the United States, arising as a result of acts or omissions of the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or the Government of the United States.

(c) Any claim not referred to in Section 174(b) and arising from an act or omission of the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or the Government of the United States prior to the effective date of this Compact shall be adjudicated in the same manner as a claim adjudicated according to Section 174(d). In any claim against the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Government of the United States shall stand in the place of the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. A judgment on any claim referred to in Section 174(b) or this subsection, not otherwise satisfied by the Government of the United States, may be presented for certification to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or its successor court, which shall have jurisdiction therefor, notwithstanding the provisions of 28 U.S.C. 1502, and which court's decisions shall be reviewable as provided by the laws of the United States. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall certify such judgment, and order payment thereof, unless it finds, after a hearing, that such judgment is manifestly erroneous as to law or fact, or manifestly excessive. In either of such cases the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have jurisdiction to modify such judgment.

(d) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the United States, and the Government of the United States shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of the courts of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in any case in which the action is based on a commercial activity of the defendant Government where the action is brought, or in a case in which damages are sought for personal injury or death or damage to or loss of property occurring where the action is brought.

Section 175

A separate agreement, which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact, shall be concluded between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia regarding mutual assistance and cooperation in law enforcement matters including the pursuit, capture, imprisonment and extradition of fugitives from justice and the transfer of prisoners. The separate agreement shall have the force of law. In the United States, the laws of the United States governing international extradition, including 18 U.S.C. 3184, 3186 and 3188-3195, shall be applicable to the extradition of fugitives under the separate agreement, and the laws of the United States governing the transfer of prisoners, including 18 U.S.C, 4100-4115, shall be applicable to the transfer of prisoners under the separate agreement.

Section 176

The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia confirm that final judgments in civil cases rendered by any court of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands shall continue in full force and effect, subject to the constitutional power of the courts of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia to grant relief from judgments in appropriate cases.

Section 177

(a) The Government of the United States accepts the responsibility for compensation owing to citizens of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia for loss or damage to property and person of the citizens of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia or resulting from the nuclear testing program which the Government of the United States conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands between June 30, 1946, and August 18, 1958.

(b) The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands shall set forth in a separate agreement provisions for the just and adequate settlement of all such claims which have arisen in regard to the Marshall Islands and its citizens and which have not as yet been compensated or which in the future may arise, for the continued administration by the Government of the United States of direct radiation related medical surveillance and treatment programs and radiological monitoring activities and for such additional programs and activities as may be mutually agreed, and for the assumption by the Government of the Marshall Islands of responsibility for enforcement of limitations on the utilization of affected areas developed in cooperation with the Government of the United States and for the assistance by the Government of the United States in the exercise of such responsibility as may be mutually agreed. This separate agreement shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact and shall remain in effect in accordance with ifs own terms.

Section 178

(a) The federal agencies of the Government of the United States which provide the services and related programs in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia pursuant to Articles II and III of Title Two are authorized to settle and pay tort claims arising in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia from the activities of such agencies or from the acts or omissions of the employees of such agencies. Except as provided in Section 178(b), the provisions of 28 U.S.C. 2672 and 31 U.S.C. 1304 shall apply exclusively to such administrative settlements and payments.

(b) Claims under Section 178(a) which cannot be settled under Section 178(a) shall be disposed of exclusively in accordance with Article II of Title Four. Arbitration awards rendered pursuant to this subsection shall be paid out of funds under 31 U.S.C. 1304.

(c) The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall, in the separate agreements referred to in Section 232, provide for:

(1) the administrative settlement of claims referred to in Section 178(a), including designation of local agents in the Marshall Islands and each State of the Federated States of Micronesia; such agents to be empowered to accept, investigate and settle such claims, in a timely manner, as provided in such separate agreements; and

(2) arbitration, referred to in Section 178(b), in a timely manner, at a site convenient to the claimant, in the event a claim is not otherwise settled pursuant to Section 178(a).

The provisions of Section 174(d) shall not apply to claims covered by this Section.


TITLE TWO
ECONOMIC RELATIONS
Article I
Grant Assistance

Section 211

(a) In order to assist the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in their efforts to advance the economic self-sufficiency of their peoples and in recognition of the special relationship that exists between them and the United States, the Government of the United States shall provide on a grant basis the following amounts:

(1) To the Government of the Marshall Islands, $26.1 million annually for five years commencing on the effective date of this Compact, $22.1 million annually for five years commencing on the fifth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact, and $19.1 million annually for five years commencing on the tenth anniversary of this Compact. Over this fifteen year period, the Government of the Marshall Islands shall dedicate an average of no less than 40 percent of these amounts to the capital account subject to provision for revision of this percentage incorporated into the plan referred to in Section 211(b); and

(2) To the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, $60 million annually for five years commencing on the effective date of this Compact, $51 million annually for five years commencing on the fifth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact, and $40 million annually for five years commencing on the tenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact. Over this fifteen year period, the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia shall dedicate an average of no less than 40 percent of these amounts annually to the capital account subject to provision for revision of this percentage incorporated into the plan referred to in Section 211(b). To take into account the special nature of the assistance, to be provided under this paragraph and Sections 212(b), 213(c), 214(c), 215(a)(3), 215(b)(3), 216(a), 216(b), 221(a), and 221(b), the division of these amounts among the national and state governments of the Federated States of Micronesia shall be certified to the Government of the United States by the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.

(b) The annual expenditure of the grant amounts specified for the capital account in Section 211(a) by the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall be in accordance with official overall economic development plans provided by those Governments and concurred in by the Government of the United States prior to the effective date of this Compact. These plans may be amended from time to time by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

(c) The Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia recognize that the achievement of the goals of the plans referred to in Section 211(b) depends upon the availability of adequate internal revenue as well as economic assistance from sources outside of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, including the Government of the United States, and may, in addition, be affected by the impact of exceptional, economically adverse circumstances. Each of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall therefore report annually to the President of the United States and to the Congress of the United States on the implementation of the plans and on their use of the funds specified in this Article. These reports shall outline the achievements of the plans to date and the need, if any, for an additional authorization and appropriation of economic assistance for that year to account for any exceptional, economically adverse circumstances. It is understood that the Government of the United States cannot be committed by this Section to seek or support such additional economic assistance.

Section 212

In recognition of the special development needs of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Government of the United States shall provide to the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia $1 million annually for fourteen years commencing on the first anniversary of the effective date of this Compact. This amount may be used by the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia to defray current account expenditures attendant to the operation of the United States military Civic Action Teams made available in accordance with the separate agreement referred to in Section 227.

Section 213

(a) The Government of the United States shall provide on a grant basis $1.9 million annually to the Government of the Marshall Islands in conjunction with Section 321(a). The Government of the Marshall Islands, in its use of such funds, shall take into account the impact of the activities of the Government of the United States in the Kwajalein Atoll area of the Marshall Islands.

(b) The Government of the United States shall provide on a grant basis to the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia the sum of $160,0.00 in conjunction with Section 321(a). This sum shall be made available concurrently with the grant assistance provided pursuant to this Article during the first year after the effective date of this Compact. The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, in its use of such funds, shall take into account the impact of the activities of the Government of the United States in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 214

As a contribution to efforts aimed at achieving increased self-sufficiency in energy production, the Government of the United States shall provide on a current account grant basis for fourteen years commencing on the first anniversary of the effective date of this Compact the following amounts:

(a) To the Government of the Marshall Islands, $2 million annually.

(b) To the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, $3 million annually.

Section 215

(a) As a contribution to the current account operations and maintenance of communications systems, the Government of the United States shall provide on a grant basis for fifteen years commencing on the effective date of this Compact the following amounts:

(1) To the Government of the Marshall Islands, $300,000 annually; and

(2) To the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, $600,000 annually.

(b) For the purpose of acquiring such communications hardware as may be located within the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia or for such other current or capital account activity as may be selected, the Government of the United States shall provide, concurrently with the grant assistance provided pursuant to this Article during the first year after the effective date of this Compact, the sum of $9 million to be allocated as follows:

(1) To the Government of the Marshall Islands, $3 million; and

(2) To the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, $6 million.

Section 216

(a) The Government of the United States shall provide on a current account basis an annual grant of $5.369 million for fifteen years commencing on the effective date of this Compact for the purposes set forth below:

(1) $890,000 annually for the surveillance and enforcement by the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia of their respective maritime zones;

(2) $1.791 million annually for health and medical programs, including referrals to hospital and treatment centers; and

(3) $2.687 million annually for a scholarship fund or funds to support the post-secondary education of citizens of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia attending United States accredited, post-secondary institutions in the United States, its territories and possessions, the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia. The curricular criteria for the award of scholarships shall be designed to advance the purposes of the plans referred to in Section 211(b).

(b) The Government of the United States shall provide the sum of $1.333 million as a contribution to the commencement of activities pursuant to Section 216(a)(l).

(c) The annual grants referred to in Section 216(a) and the sum referred to in Section 216(b) shall be made available by the Government of the United States promptly after it receives instruction for their distribution agreed upon by the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 217

Except as otherwise provided, the amounts stated in Sections 211, 212, 214, 215 and 231 shall be adjusted for each Fiscal Year by the percent which equals two-thirds of the percentage change in the United States Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator, or seven percent, whichever is less in any one year, using the beginning of Fiscal Year 1981 as the base.

Section 218

If in any year the funds made available by the Government of the United States for that year pursuant to this Article or Section 231 are not completely obligated by the recipient Government, the unobligated balances shall remain available in addition to the funds to be provided in subsequent years.

Section 219

All funds previously appropriated to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands which are unobligated by the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as of the effective date of this Compact shall accrue to the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia for the purposes for which such funds were originally appropriated as determined by the Government of the United States.

Article II
Program Assistance

Section 221

(a) The Government of the United States shall make available to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, in accordance with and to the extent provided in the separate agreements referred to in Section 232, without compensation and at the levels equivalent to those available to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands during the year prior to the effective date of this Compact, the services and related programs:

(1) of the United States Weather Service;

(2) of the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(3) provided pursuant to the Postal Reorganization Act, 39 U.S.C. 101 et seq.;

(4) of the United States Federal Aviation Administration; and

(5) of the United States Civil Aeronautics Board or its successor agencies which has the authority to implement the provisions of paragraph 5 of Article IX of such separate agreements, the language of which is incorporated into this Compact.

(b) The Government of the United States, recognizing the special needs of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia particularly in the fields of education and health care, shall make available, as provided by the laws of the United States, the annual amount of $10 million which shall be allocated in accordance with the provisions of the separate agreement referred to in Section 232.

(c) The Government of the United States shall make available to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia such alternate energy development projects, studies and conservation measures as are applicable to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact, for the purposes and duration provided in the laws of the United States.

(d) The Government of the United States shall have and exercise such authority as is necessary for the purposes of this Article and as is set forth in the separate agreements referred to in Section 232, which shall also set forth the extent to which services and programs shall be provided to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 222

The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall consult regularly or upon request regarding:

(a) the economic development of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia; or

(b) the services and programs referred to in this Article. These services and programs shall continue to be provided by the Government of the United States unless their modification is provided by mutual agreement or their termination in whole or in part is requested by any recipient Government.

Section 223

The citizens of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia who are receiving post-secondary educational assistance from the Government of the United States on the day preceding the effective date of this Compact shall continue to be eligible, if otherwise qualified, to receive such assistance to complete their academic programs for a maximum of four years after the effective date of this Compact.

Section 224

The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia may agree from time to time to the extension of additional United States grant assistance, services and programs as provided by the laws of the United States, to the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, respectively.

Section 225

The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall make available to the Government of the United States at no cost such land as may be necessary for the operations of the services and programs provided pursuant to this Article, and such facilities as are provided by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia at no cost to the Government of the United States as of the effective date of this Compact or as may be mutually agreed thereafter.

Section 226

The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia may request, from time to time, technical assistance from the federal agencies and institutions of the Government of the United States, which are authorized to grant such technical assistance in accordance with its laws and which shall grant such technical assistance in a manner which gives priority consideration to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia over other recipients not a part of the United States, its territories or possessions. The Government of the United States shall coordinate the provision of such technical assistance in consultation with the respective recipient Government.

Section 227

In recognition of the special development needs of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Government of the United States shall make available United States military Civic Action Teams for use in the Federated States of Micronesia under terms and conditions specified in a separate agreement which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.

Article III
Administrative Provisions

Section 231

Upon the thirteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact, the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall commence negotiations regarding those provisions of this Compact which expire on the fifteenth anniversary of its effective date. If these negotiations are not concluded by the fifteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact, the period of negotiations shall extend for not more than two additional years, during which time the provisions of this Compact including Title Three shall remain in full force and effect. During this additional period of negotiations, the Government of the United States shall continue its assistance to the Governments with which it is negotiating pursuant to this Section at a level which is the average of the annual amounts granted pursuant to Sections 211, 212, 213, 214, 215 and 216 during the first fifteen years of this Compact. The average annual amount paid pursuant to Sections 211, 212, 214 and 215 shall be adjusted pursuant to Section 217.

Section 232

The specific nature, extent and contractual arrangements of the services and programs provided for in Section 221 as well as the legal status of agencies of the Government of the United States, their civilian employees and contractors, and the dependents of such personnel while present in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, and other arrangements in connection with a service or program furnished by the Government of the United States, are set forth in separate agreements which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.

Section 233

The Government of the United States, in consultation with the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, shall determine and implement procedures for the periodic audit of all grants and other assistance made under Article I of this Title and of all funds expended for the services and programs provided under Article II of this Title. Such audits shall be conducted on an annual basis during the first five years following the effective date of this Compact and shall be at no cost to the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 234

Title to the property of the Government of the United States situated in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands or acquired for or used by the Government of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands on or before the day preceding the effective date of this Compact shall, without reimbursement or transfer of funds, vest in the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia as set forth in a separate agreement which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to the property of the Government of the United States for which the Government of the United States determines a continuing requirement.

Section 235

(a) Funds held in trust by the High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, in his official capacity, as of the effective date of this Compact shall remain available as trust funds to their designated beneficiaries. The Government of the United States, in consultation with the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, shall appoint a new trustee who shall exercise the functions formerly exercised by the High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(b) To provide for the continuity of administration, and to assure the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia that the purposes of the laws of the United States are carried out and that the funds of any other trust fund in which the High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands has authority of a statutory or customary nature shall remain available as trust funds to their designated beneficiaries, the Government of the United States agrees to assume the authority formerly vested in the High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Section 236

Except as otherwise provided, approval of this Compact by the Government of the United States shall constitute a pledge of the full faith and credit of the United States for the full payment of the sums and amounts specified in Articles I and III of this Title. The obligation of the United States under Articles I and III of this Title shall be enforceable in the United States Claims Court, or its successor court, which shall have jurisdiction in cases arising under this Section, notwithstanding the provisions of 28 U.S.C. 1502, and which court's decisions shall be reviewable as provided by the laws of the United States.

Article IV
Trade

Section 241

The Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia are not included in the customs territory of the United States.

Section 242

The President shall proclaim the following tariff treatment for articles imported from the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands which shall apply during the period of effectiveness of this title:

(1) Unless otherwise excluded, articles imported from the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands, subject to the limitations imposed under sections 503(b) and 504(c) of title 5 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2463(b); 2464(c)), shall be exempt from duty.

(2) Only canned tuna provided for in item 112.30 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States that is imported from the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands during any calendar year not to exceed 10 percent of the United States consumption of canned tuna during the immediately preceding calendar year, as reported by the National Marine Fisheries Service, shall be exempt from duty; but the quantity of tuna given duty free treatment under this paragraph for any calendar year shall be counted against the aggregate quantity of canned tuna that is dutiable under rate column numbered 1 of such item 112.30 for that calendar year.

(3) The duty-free treatment provided under paragraph (1) shall not apply to-

(A) watches, clocks, and timing apparatus provided for in subpart E of part 2 of schedule 7 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States;
(B) buttons (whether finished or not finished) provided for in item 745.32 of such Schedules;
(C) textile and apparel articles which are subject to textile agreements; and
(D) footwear, handbags, luggage, flat goods, work gloves, and leather wearing apparel which were not eligible articles for purposes of chapter V of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2461, et seq.) on April 1, 1984.

(4) If the cost or value of materials produced in the customs territory of the United States is included with respect to an eligible article which is a product of the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands, an amount not to exceed 15 percent of the appraised value of the article at the time it is entered that is attributable to such United States cost or value may be applied for duty assessment purposes toward determining the percentage referred to in section 503(b)(2) of title V of the Trade Act of 1974.

Note: Section 242 was amended by P.L. 99-239 of January 14, 1986. The original text of this section is available here.

Section 243

Articles imported from the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands which are not exempt from duty under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) of section 242 shall be subject to the rates of duty set forth in column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States and all products of the United States imported into the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall receive treatment no less favorable than that accorded like products of any foreign country with respect to customs duties or charges of a similar nature and with respect to laws and regulations relating to importation, exportation, taxation, sale, distribution, storage or use.

Note: Section 243 was amended by P.L. 99-239 of January 14, 1986. The original text of this section is available here.

Article V
Finance and Taxation

Section 251

The currency of the United States is the official circulating legal tender of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Should the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia act to institute another currency, the terms of an appropriate currency transitional period shall be as agreed with the Government of the United States.

Section 252

The Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia may, with respect to United States persons, tax income derived from sources within its respective jurisdiction, property situated therein, including transfers of such property by gift or at death, and products consumed therein, in such manner as such Government deems appropriate. The determination of the source of any income, or the situs of any property, shall for purposes of this Compact be made according to the United States Internal Revenue Code.

Section 253

A citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, domiciled therein, shall be exempt from:

Note: Previous section 253(a) is not applicable under P.L. 99-239, section 402 (a). Previous text of this section is available here.

(b) estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes imposed by the Government of the United States.

Note: Section 253(b) applies only to "individuals who are nonresidents and not citizens of the United States", under terms of P.L. 99-239, section 402 (b).

Section 254

(a) In determining any income tax imposed by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, those Governments shall have authority to impose tax upon income derived by a resident of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia from sources without the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, in the same manner and to the same extent as those Governments impose tax upon income derived from within their respective jurisdictions. If the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia exercises such authority as provided in this subsection, any individual resident of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia who is subject to tax by the Government of the United States on income which is also taxed by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall be relieved of liability to the Government of the United States for the tax which, but for this subsection, would otherwise be imposed by the Government of the United States on such income. For purposes of this Section, the term "resident of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia" shall be deemed to include any person who was physically present in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia for a period of 183 or more days during any taxable year; provided, that as between the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, the authority to tax an individual resident of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia in respect of income from sources without the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia as provided in this subsection may be exercised only by the Government in whose jurisdiction such individual was physically present for the greatest number of days during the taxable year.

Note: The second sentence of 254(a) is interpreted by P.L. 99-239, section 403, as follows:

The relief from liability referred to in the second sentence of section 254(a) of the Compact means only -

(1) relief in the form of the foreign tax credit (or deduction in lieu thereof) available with respect to the income taxes of a possession of the United States, and

(2) relief in the form of the exclusion under section 911 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

(b) If the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia subjects income to taxation substantially similar to that imposed by the Trust Territory Code in effect on January 1, 1980, such Government shall be deemed to have exercised the authority described in Section 254(a).

Section 255

(a) EXTENSION OF SECTION 936 TO THE MARSHALL ISLANDS AND THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA. - For purposes of section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall be treated as if they were possessions of the United States.

(b) EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION. - Subsection (a) shall not apply to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (as the case may be) for any period after December 31, 1986, during which there is not in effect between the appropriate government and the United States an exchange of information agreement of the kind described in section 274(h)(6)(C) (other than clause (ii) thereof) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

(c) PROCEDURE IF SECTION 936 INCENTIVES REDUCED. - If the tax incentives extended to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia under subsection (a) are, at any time during which the Compact is in effect, reduced, the Secretary of the Treasury shall negotiate an agreement with the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia under which, when such agreement is approved by law, they will be provided with benefits substantially equivalent to such reduction in benefits. If, within the 1 year period after the date of the enactment of the Act making the reduction in benefits, an agreement negotiated under the preceding sentence is not approved by law, the matter shall be submitted to the Arbitration Board established pursuant to section 424 of the Compact. For purposes of Article V of Title Two of the Compact, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall be the member of such Board representing the Government of the United States. Any decision of such board in the matter when approved by law shall be binding on the United States, except that such decision rendered is binding only as to whether the United States has provided the substantially equivalent benefits referred to in this subsection.

Note: Section 255 was amended by P.L. 99-239, section 404. Previous text of this section is available here.


TITLE THREE
SECURITY AND DEFENSE RELATIONS
Article I
Authority and Responsibility

Section 311

(a) The Government of the United States has full authority and responsibility for security and defense matters in or relating to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

(b) This authority and responsibility includes:

(1) the obligation to defend the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia and their peoples from attack or threats thereof as the United States and its citizens are defended;

(2) the option to foreclose access to or use of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia by military personnel or for the military purposes of any third country; and

(3) the option to establish and use military areas and facilities in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, subject to the terms of the separate agreements referred to in Sections 321 and 323.

(c) The Government of the United States confirms that it shall act in accordance with the principles of international law and the Charter of the United Nations in the exercise of this authority and responsibility.

Section 312

Subject to the terms of any agreements negotiated in accordance with Sections 321 and 323, the Government of the United States may conduct within the lands, waters and airspace of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia the activities and operations necessary for the exercise of its authority and responsibility under this Title.

Section 313

(a) The Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall refrain from actions which the Government of the United States determines, after appropriate consultation with those Governments, to be incompatible with its authority and responsibility for security and defense matters in or relating to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.

(b) The consultations referred to in this Section shall be conducted expeditiously at senior levels of the Governments concerned, and the subsequent determination by the Government of the United States referred to in this Section shall be made only at senior interagency levels of the Government of the United States.

(c) The Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall be afforded, on an expeditious basis, an opportunity to raise its concerns with the United States Secretary of State personally and the United States Secretary of Defense personally regarding any determination made in accordance with this Section.

Section 314

(a) Unless otherwise agreed, the Government of the United States shall not, in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia:

(1) test by detonation or dispose of any nuclear weapon, nor test, dispose of, or discharge any toxic chemical or biological weapon; or

(2) test, dispose of, or discharge any other radioactive, toxic chemical or biological materials in an amount or manner which would be hazardous to public health or safety.

(b) Unless otherwise agreed, other than for transit or overflight purposes or during time of a national emergency declared by the President of the United States, a state of war declared by the Congress of the United States or as necessary to defend against an actual or impending armed attack on the United States, the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, the Government of the United States shall not store in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia any toxic chemical weapon, nor any radioactive materials nor any toxic chemical materials intended for weapons use.

(c) Radioactive, toxic chemical, or biological materials not intended for weapons use shall not be affected by Section 314(b).

(d) No material or substance referred to in this Section shall be stored in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia except in an amount and manner which would not be hazardous to public health or safety. In determining what shall be an amount or manner which would be hazardous to public health or safety under this Section, the Government of the United States shall comply with any applicable mutual agreement, international guidelines accepted by the Government of the United States, and the laws of the United States and their implementing regulations.

(e) Any exercise of the exemption authority set forth in Section 161(e) shall have no effect on the obligations of the Government of the United States under this Section or on the application of this subsection.

(f) The provisions of this Section shall apply in the areas in which the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia exercises jurisdiction over the living resources of the seabed, subsoil or water column adjacent to its coasts.

Section 315

The Government of the United States may invite members of the armed forces of other countries to use military areas and facilities in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, in conjunction with and under the control of United States Armed Forces. Use by units of the armed forces of other countries of such military areas and facilities, other than for transit and overflight purposes, shall be subject to consultation with and, in the case of major units, approval by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

Section 316

The authority and responsibility of the Government of the United States under this Title may not be transferred or otherwise assigned.

Article II
Defense Facilities and Operating Rights

Section 321

(a) Specific arrangements for the establishment and use by the Government of the United States of military areas and facilities in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia are set forth in separate agreements which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.

(b) If, in the exercise of its authority and responsibility under this Title, the Government of the United States requires the use of areas within the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia in addition to those for which specific arrangements are concluded pursuant to Section 321(a), it may request the Government concerned to satisfy those requirements through leases or other arrangements. The Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall sympathetically consider any such request and shall establish suitable procedures to discuss it with and provide a prompt response to the Government of the United States.

(c) The Government of the United States recognizes and respects the scarcity and special importance of land in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. In making any requests pursuant to Section 321(b), the Government of the United States shall follow the policy of requesting the minimum area necessary to accomplish the required security and defense purpose, of requesting only the minimum interest in real property necessary to support such purpose, and of requesting first to satisfy its requirement through public real property, where available, rather than through private real property.

Section 322

The Government of the United States shall provide and maintain fixed and floating aids to navigation in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia at least to the extent necessary for the exercise of its authority and responsibility under this Title.

Section 323

The military operating rights of the Government of the United States and the legal status and contractual arrangements of the United States Armed Forces, their members, and associated civilians, while present in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, are set forth in separate agreements which shall come into effect simultaneously with this Compact.

Article III
Defense Treaties and International Security Agreements

Section 331

Subject to the terms of this Compact and its related agreements, the Government of the United States, exclusively, shall assume and enjoy, as to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, all obligations, responsibilities, rights and benefits of:

(a) Any defense treaty or other international security agreement applied by the Government of the United States as Administering Authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as of the day preceding the effective date of this Compact; and

(b) Any defense treaty or other international security agreement to which the Government of the United States is or may become a party which it determines to be applicable in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Such a determination by the Government of the United States shall be preceded by appropriate consultation with the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia.

Article IV
Service in Armed Forces of the United States

Section 341

Any person entitled to the privileges set forth in Section 141 shall be eligible to volunteer for service in the Armed Forces of the United States, but shall not be subject to involuntary induction into military service of the United States so long as such person does not establish habitual residence in the United States, its territories or possessions.

Section 342

The Government of the United States shall have enrolled, at any one time, at least three qualified students, one each from the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, as may be nominated by their respective Governments, in each of:

(a) The United States Coast Guard Academy pursuant to 14 U.S.C. 195.

(b) The United States Merchant Marine Academy pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 1295b(b)(6), provided that the provisions of 46 U.S.C. 1295b(b)(6)(C) shall not apply to the enrollment of students pursuant to Section 342(b) of this Compact.

Article V
General Provisions

Section 351

(a) The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall establish three Joint Committees empowered to consider disputes under the implementation of this Title and its related agreements.

(b) The membership of each Joint Committee shall comprise selected senior officials of each of the two participating Governments. The senior United States military commander in the Pacific area shall be the senior United States member of each Joint Committee. For the meetings of each Joint Committee, each of the two participating Governments may designate additional or alternate representatives as appropriate for the subject matter under consideration.

(c) Unless otherwise mutually agreed, each Joint Committee shall meet semi-annually at a time and place to be designated, after appropriate consultation, by the Government of the United States. A Joint Committee also shall meet promptly upon request of either of its members. Upon notification by the Government of the United States, the Joint Committees so notified shall meet promptly in a combined session to consider matters within the jurisdiction of more than one Joint Committee. Each Joint Committee shall follow such procedures, including the establishment of functional subcommittees, as the members may from time to time agree.

(d) Unresolved issues in each Joint Committee shall be referred to the Governments concerned for resolutions and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia shall be afforded, on an expeditious basis, an opportunity to raise its concerns with the United States Secretary of Defense personally regarding any unresolved issue which threatens its continued association with the Government of the United States.

Section 352

In the exercise of its authority and responsibility under Title Three, the Government of the United States shall accord due respect to the authority and responsibility of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia under Titles One, Two and Four and to their responsibility to assure the well-being of their peoples.

Section 353

(a) The Government of the United States shall not include any of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia as named parties to a formal declaration of war, without their respective consent.

(b) Absent such consent, this Compact is without prejudice, on the ground of belligerence or the existence of a state of war, to any claims for damages which are advanced by the citizens, nationals or Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, which arise out of armed conflict subsequent to the effective date of this Compact and which are:

(1) petitions to the Government of the United States for redress; or

(2) claims in any manner against the government, citizens, nationals or entities of any third country.

(c) Petitions under Section 353(b)(1) shall be treated as if they were made by citizens of the United States.

Section 354

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Compact, the provisions of this Title are binding from the effective date of this Compact for a period of fifteen years between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia and thereafter as mutually agreed or in accordance with Section 231, unless earlier terminated by mutual agreement pursuant to Section 441, or amended pursuant to Article III of Title Four.

(b) The Government of the United States recognizes, in view of the special relationship between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, and in view of the existence of separate agreements with each of them pursuant to Sections 321 and 323, that, even if this Title should terminate, any attack on the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia during the period in which such separate agreements are in effect, would constitute a threat to the peace and security of the entire region and a danger to the United States. In the event of such an attack, the Government of the United States would take action to meet the danger to the United States and to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia in accordance with its constitutional processes.


TITLE FOUR
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article I
Approval and Effective Date

Section 411

This Compact shall come into effect upon mutual agreement between the Government of the United States, acting in fulfillment of its responsibilities as Administering Authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Government of the Marshall islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and subsequent to completion of the following:

(a) Approval by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia in accordance with its constitutional processes;

(b) Conduct of the plebiscite referred to in Section 412; and

(c) Approval by the Government of the United States in accordance with its constitutional processes.

Section 412

A plebiscite shall be conducted in each of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia for the free and voluntary choice by the peoples of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands of their future political status through informed and democratic processes. the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall each be considered a voting jurisdiction, and the plebiscite shall be conducted under fair and equitable standards in each voting jurisdiction. The Administering Authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, after consultation with the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, shall fix the date on which the plebiscite shall be called in each voting jurisdiction. The plebiscite shall be called jointly by the Administering Authority of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and the other Signatory Government concerned. The results of the plebiscite in each voting jurisdiction shall be determined by a majority of the valid ballots cast in that voting jurisdiction.

Article II
Conference and Dispute Resolution

Section 421

The Government of the United States shall confer promptly at the request of the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and any of those Governments shall confer promptly at the request of the Government of the United States on matters relating to the provisions of this Compact or of its related agreements.

Section 422

In the event the Government of the United States, or the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, after conferring pursuant to Section 421, determines that there is a dispute and gives written notice thereof, the Governments which are parties to the dispute shall make a good faith effort to resolve the dispute among themselves.

Section 423

If a dispute between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia cannot be resolved within 90 days of written notification in the manner provided in Section 422, either party to the dispute may refer it to arbitration in accordance with Section 424.

Section 424

Should a dispute be referred to arbitration as provided for in Section 423, an Arbitration Board shall be established for the purpose of hearing the dispute and rendering a decision which shall be binding upon the two parties to the dispute unless the two parties mutually agree that the decision shall be advisory. Arbitration shall occur according to the following terms:

(a) An Arbitration Board shall consist of a Chairman and two other members, each of whom shall be a citizen of a party to the dispute. Each of the two Governments which is a party to the dispute shall appoint one member to the Arbitration Board. If either party to the dispute does not fulfill the appointment requirements of this Section within 30 days of referral of the dispute to arbitration pursuant to Section 423, its member on the Arbitration Board shall be selected from its own standing list by the other party to the dispute. Each Government shall maintain a standing list of 10 candidates. The parties to the dispute shall jointly appoint a Chairman within 15 days after selection of the other members of the Arbitration Board. Failing agreement on a Chairman, the Chairman shall be chosen by lot from the standing lists of the parties to the dispute within 5 days after such failure.

(b) The Arbitration Board shall have jurisdiction to hear and render its final determination on all disputes arising exclusively under Articles I, II, III, IV and V of Title One, Title Two, Title Four and their related agreements.

(c) Each member of the Arbitration Board shall have one vote. Each decision of the Arbitration Board shall be reached by` majority vote.

(d) In determining any legal issue, the Arbitration Board may have reference to international law and, in such reference, shall apply as guidelines the provisions set forth in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice.

(e) The Arbitration Board shall adopt such rules for its proceedings as it may deem appropriate and necessary, but such rules shall not contravene the provisions of this Compact. Unless the parties provide otherwise by mutual agreement, the Arbitration Board shall endeavor to render its decision within 30 days after the conclusion of arguments. The Arbitration Board shall make findings of fact and conclusions of law and its members may issue dissenting or individual opinions. Except as may be otherwise decided by the Arbitration Board, one-half of all costs of the arbitration shall be borne by the Government of the United States and the remainder shall be borne by the other party to the dispute.

Article III
Amendment

Section 431

The provisions of this Compact may be amended as to all of the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia and as to the Government of the United States at any time by mutual agreement.

Section 432

The provisions of this Compact may be amended as to any one of the Governments of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and as to the Government of the United States at any time by mutual agreement. The effect of any amendment made pursuant to this Section shall be restricted to the relationship between the Governments agreeing to such amendment, but the other Governments signatory to this Compact shall be notified promptly by the Government of the United States of any such amendment.

Article IV
Termination

Section 441

This Compact may be terminated as to any one of the Governments of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and as to the Government of the United States by mutual agreement and subject to Section 451.

Section 442

This Compact may be terminated by the Government of the United States as to the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia subject to Section 452, such termination to be effective on the date specified in the notice of termination by the Government of the United States but not earlier than six months following delivery of such notice. The time specified in the notice of termination may be extended.

Section 443

This Compact shall be terminated, pursuant to their respective constitutional processes, by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia subject to Section 453 if the people represented by such Government vote in a plebiscite to terminate. Such Government shall notify the Government of the United States of its intention to call such a plebiscite which shall take place not earlier than three months after delivery of such notice. The plebiscite shall be administered by such Government in accordance with its constitutional and legislative processes, but the Government of the United States may send its own observers and invite observers from a mutually agreed party. If a majority of the valid ballots cast in the plebiscite favors termination, such Government shall, upon certification of the results of the plebiscite, give notice of termination to the Government of the United States, such termination to be effective on the date specified in such notice but not earlier than three months following the date of delivery of such notice. The time specified in the notice of termination may be extended.

Article V
Survivability

Section 451

Should termination occur pursuant to Section 441, economic assistance by the Government of the United States shall continue on mutually agreed terms.

Section 452

(a) Should termination occur pursuant to Section 442, the following provisions of this Compact shall remain in full force and effect until the fifteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and thereafter as mutually agreed:

(1) Article VI and Sections 172, 173, 176 and 177 of Title One;

(2) Article I and Section 233 of Title Two;

(3) Title Three; and

(4) Articles II, III, V and VI of Title Four.

(b) The Government of the United States shall also provide the Government as to which termination occurs pursuant to Section 442 with either the programs or services provided pursuant to Article II of Title Two at the time of termination, or their equivalent, as determined by the Government of the United States. Such assistance shall continue until the fifteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact, and thereafter as mutually agreed.

Section 453

(a) Should termination occur pursuant to Section 443, the following provisions of this Compact shall remain in full force and effect until the fifteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia and thereafter as mutually agreed:

(1) Article VI and Sections 172, 173, 176 and 177 of Title One;

(2) Title Three; and

(3) Article II, III, V and VI of Title Four.

(b) Upon receipt of notice of termination pursuant to Section 443, the Government of the United States and the Government so terminating shall promptly consult with regard to their future relationship. These consultations shall determine the level of economic assistance which the Government of the United States shall provide to the Government so terminating for the period ending on the fifteenth anniversary of the effective date of this Compact provided that the annual amounts specified in Sections 211, 212, 214, 215 and 216 shall continue without diminution. Such amounts, with the exception of those specified in Section 216, shall be adjusted according to the formula set forth in Section 217.

Section 454

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Compact:

(a) The Government of the United States reaffirms its continuing interest in promoting the long-term economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the peoples of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia; and

(b) The separate agreements referred to in Article II of Title Three shall remain in effect in accordance with their terms which shall also determine the duration of Section 213.

Article VI
Definition of Terms

Section 461

For the purpose of this Compact only and without prejudice to the views of the Government of the United States or the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia as to the nature and extent of the jurisdiction under international law of any of them, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

(a) "Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands" means the area established in the Trusteeship Agreement consisting of the administrative districts of Kosrae, Yap, Ponape, the Marshall Islands and Truk as described in Title One, Trust Territory Code, Section 1, in force on January 1, 1979. This term does not include the area of Palau or the Northern Mariana Islands.

(b) "Trusteeship Agreement" means the agreement setting forth the terms of trusteeship for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, approved by the Security Council of the United Nations April 2, 1947, and by the United States July 18, 1947, entered into force July 18, 1947, 61 Stat. 3301, T.I.A.S. 1665, 8 U.N.T.S. 189.

(c) "The Marshall Islands" and "the Federated States of Micronesia" are used in a geographic sense and include the land and water areas to the outer limits of the territorial sea and the air space above such areas as now or hereafter recognized by the Government of the United States.

(d) "Government of the Marshall Islands" means the Government established and organized by the Constitution of the Marshall Islands including all the political subdivisions and entities comprising that Government.

"Government of the Federated States of Micronesia" means the Government established and organized by the Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia including all the political subdivisions and entities comprising that Government.

(e) The following terms shall be defined consistent with the 1976 Edition of the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union (ISBN 92-61-0081-5) as follows:

(1) "Radio Communications" means telecommunication by means of radio waves.

(2) "Station" means one or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radio communication service; each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

(3) "Broadcasting Service" means a radio communication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public, and which may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmissions.

(4) "Broadcasting Station" means a station in the broadcasting service.

(f) "Frequency Assignment" means the same as 'Frequency Assignment' means in the 1976 Edition of the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union (ISBN 92-61-0081-5).

(g) "Habitual Residence" means a place of general abode or a principal, actual dwelling place of a continuing or lasting nature; provided however, that this term shall not apply to the residence of any person who entered the United States for the purpose of full-time studies as long as such person maintains that status, or who has been physically present in the United States, the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia for less than one year, or who is a dependent of a resident representative, as described in Section 152.

(h) For the purposes of Article IV of Title One of this Compact:

(1) "Actual Residence" means physical presence in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia during eighty-five percent of the period of residency required by Section 141(a)(3); and

(2) "Certificate of Actual Residence" means a certificate issued to a naturalized citizen by the Government which has naturalized him stating that the citizen has complied with the actual residence requirement of Section 141(a)(3).

(i) "Military Areas and Facilities" means those areas and facilities in the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia reserved or acquired by the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia for use by the Government of the United States, as set forth in the separate agreements referred to in Section 321.

(j) "Capital Account" means, for each year of the Compact, those portions of the total grant assistance provided in Article I of Title Two, adjusted by Section 217, which are to be obligated for:

(1) the construction or major repair of capital infrastructure; or

(2) public and private sector projects identified in the official overall economic development plan.

(k) "Current Account" means, for each year of the Compact, those portions of the total grant assistance provided in Article I of Title Two, adjusted by Section 217, which are to be obligated for recurring operational activities including infrastructure maintenance as identified in the annual budget justifications submitted yearly to the Government of the United States.

(l) "Official Overall Economic Development Plan" means the documented program of annual development which identifies the specific policy and project activities necessary to achieve a specified set of economic goals and objectives during the period of free association, consistent with the economic assistance authority in Title Two. Such a document should include an analysis of population trends, manpower requirements, social needs, gross national product estimates, resource utilization, infrastructure needs and expenditures, and the specific private sector projects required to develop the local economy of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia. Project identification should include initial cost estimates, with project purposes related to specific development goals and objectives.

(m) "Tariff Schedules of the United States" means the Tariff Schedules of the United States as amended from time to time and as promulgated pursuant to United States law and includes the Tariff Schedules of the United States Annotated (TSUSA), as amended.

(n) "Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations" means the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, done April 18, 1961, 23 U.S.T. 3227, T.I.A.S. 7502, 500 U.N.T.S. 95.

Section 462

The Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia, as appropriate, shall conclude related agreements which shall come into effect and shall survive in accordance with their terms, as follows:

(a) Agreement Regarding the Provision of Telecommunication Services by the Government of the United States to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia Concluded Pursuant to Section 131 of the Compact of Free Association;

(b) Agreement Regarding the Operation of Telecommunication Services of the Government of the United States in the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia Concluded Pursuant to Section 132 of the Compact of Free Association;

(c) Agreement on Extradition, Mutual Assistance in Law Enforcement Matters and Penal Sanctions Concluded Pursuant to Section 175 of the Compact of Free Association;

(d) Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands for the Implementation of Section 177 of the Compact of Free Association;

(e) Federal Programs and Services Agreement Concluded Pursuant to Article II of Title Two and Section 232 of the Compact of Free Association;

(f) Agreement Concluded Pursuant to Section 234 of the Compact of Free Association;

(g) Agreement Regarding the Military Use and Operating Rights of the Government of the United States in the Marshall Islands Concluded Pursuant to Sections 321 and 323 of the Compact of Free Association;

(h) Agreement Regarding the Military Use and Operating Rights of the Government of the United States in the Federated States of Micronesia Concluded Pursuant to Sections 227, 321 and 323 of the Compact of Free Association;

(i) Status of Forces Agreement Concluded Pursuant to Section 323 of the Compact of Free Association;

(j) Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia Regarding Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Security Concluded Pursuant to Section 321 and 323 of the Compact of Free Association; and

(k) Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Marshall Islands Regarding Mutual Security Concluded Pursuant to Section 321 and 323 of the Compact of Free Association.

Section 463

(a) Except as set forth in Section 463(b), any reference in this Compact to a provision of the United States Code or the Statutes at Large of the United States constitutes the incorporation of the language of such provision into this Compact, as such provision was in force on January 1, 1980.

(b) Any reference in Article VI of Title One and Sections 131, 174, 175, 178 and 342 to a provision of the United States Code or the Statutes at Large of the United States or to the Privacy Act, the Freedom of Information Act or the Administrative Procedure Act constitutes the incorporation of the language of such provision into this Compact as such provision is in force on the effective date of this Compact or as it may be amended thereafter on a non-discriminatory basis according to the constitutional processes of the United States.

Article VII
Concluding Provisions

Section 471

(a) The Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia agree that they have full authority under their respective Constitutions to enter into this Compact and its related agreements and to fulfill all of their respective responsibilities in accordance with the terms of this Compact and its related agreements. The Governments pledge that they are so committed.

(b) Each of the Governments of the United States, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia shall take all necessary steps, of a general or particular character, to ensure, not later than the effective date of this Compact, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Compact.

(c) Without prejudice to the effects of this Compact under international law, this Compact has the force and effect of a statute under the laws of the United States.

Section 472

This Compact may be accepted, by signature or otherwise, by the Government of the United States, the Government of the Government of the Marshall Islands, and the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia. Each Government accepting this Compact shall possess an original English language version.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Compact of Free Association which shall come into effect in accordance with its terms between the Government of the United States and each of the other Governments signatory to this Compact.

DONE AT HONOLULU, HAWAII, THIS 1ST DAY OF OCTOBER, ONE THOUSAND, NINE HUNDRED EIGHTY-TWO
FOR THE GOVERNMENT
OF
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 

AMBASSADOR FRED M. ZEDER, II
PRESIDENT'S PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE
FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS

DONE AT HONOLULU, HAWAII, THIS 1ST DAY OF OCTOBER, ONE THOUSAND, NINE HUNDRED EIGHTY-TWO
FOR THE GOVERNMENT
OF
THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA
 

HONORABLE ANDON L. AMARAICH
CHAIRMAN, COMMISSION ON FUTURE
POLITICAL STATUS AND TRANSITION

DONE AT MAJURO, MARSHALL ISLANDS, THIS 25TH DAY OF JUNE, ONE THOUSAND, NINE HUNDRED EIGHTY-THREE
FOR THE GOVERNMENT
OF
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 

AMBASSADOR FRED M. ZEDER, II
PRESIDENT'S PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE
FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS

DONE AT MAJURO, MARSHALL ISLANDS, THIS 25TH DAY OF JUNE, ONE THOUSAND, NINE HUNDRED EIGHTY-THREE
FOR THE GOVERNMENT
OF
THE MARSHALL ISLANDS
 

PRESIDENT AMATA KABUA
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC
OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS