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Glossary/Acronyms



Refer also to the glossary presented in the attached ASTM standard as well as the comprehensive glossary on page 223 of the textbook, Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health.

  • ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)
    ASTM is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM develops standard test methods, specifications, practices, guides, classifications, and terminology in 130 areas covering subjects such as metals, paints, plastics, textiles, petroleum, construction, energy, the environment, consumer products, medical services and devices, computerized systems, electronics, and many others.

  • Environmentally Preferable
    Refers to products or services having a reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. The product or service comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance, or disposal.

  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
    EPA is a federal agency that implements the federal laws designed to promote public health by protecting our nation's air, water, and soil from harmful pollution. EPA also monitors the operations of other federal agencies with respect to their impact on the environment.

  • EPP (Environmentally Preferable Purchasing)
    Refers to a federal-wide program administered by EPA that encourages and assists Executive agencies in the purchasing of environmentally preferable products and services.

  • CPG (Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines)
    EPA's guidance to the federal government's "buy recycled" program. EPA developed lists of available recycled-content products and vendors and recommended recycled-content percentages.

  • Green Cleaning
    A holistic approach that takes into account: (1) the health, safety, and environmental risks of products and processes associated with cleaning; (2) the mission and use of the facility to be cleaned and the behavior of facility occupants; and (3) the cleaning, maintenance, and sanitation needs of the facility.

  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer)

  • JWOD (Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act)
    JWOD refers to the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act, which established a mandatory source of supply for certain items for all federal government employees. Products available for sale through JWOD are manufactured by nonprofit agencies throughout the United States that employ people who are blind or have other severe disabilities.

  • MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)
    Material Safety Data Sheets are designed to provide both workers and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with certain hazardous substances. MSDS include information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill/leak procedures. These are of particular use if a spill or other accident occurs.

  • NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)

  • NIB (National Industries for the Blind)
    NIB is a private, not-for-profit corporation whose mission is to enhance the opportunities for economic and personal independence of persons who are blind. NIB accomplishes its mission by developing business opportunities in the federal, state, and commercial marketplaces for more than 80 nonprofit associated agencies across the United States. Items made by NIB can be purchased through JWOD.

  • NISH
    NISH, formerly the National Industries for the Severely Handicapped, is the national nonprofit agency designated by the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind Or Severely Disabled. Through JWOD, NISH develops and maintains employment and training opportunities for people with severe disabilities.

  • NTP (National Toxicology Program)

  • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
    Federal agency that requires employers to protect the health and safety of their employees, through training, use of certain procedures, development of emergency plants, and more.

  • RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)
    RCRA is a regulation that governs the safe management and disposal of municipal and industrial wastes generated nationwide. One part of RCRA regulates hazardous waste, from the time it is generated until its ultimate disposal. Another part of RCRA handles solid (primarily nonhazardous) waste, such as household garbage.

  • Risk
    The measure of the probability and severity of harm to human health or the environment. It is based on the type and toxicity of the hazard in question (meaning its potential effect on plants, animals, humans, and ecosystems) and the type and degree of exposure to that hazard (based on the intensity, frequency, and duration).

  • Sick Building
    A building in which occupants complain of health and comfort problems related to being in the building. Sick buildings are often those that have poorly managed cleaning systems. Initial poor building design or faulty furnishings can also cause problems. Five general symptoms signal that a person is spending time in an unsafe building: sensory irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; skin irritations; neurotoxic symptoms; hypersensitivity; and odor and taste problems.

  • Toxicity
    Describes the degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans or animals.