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CHAPTER 2: Traditional Versus "Green" Cleaning Products



This section provides an overview of the health and environmental impacts of cleaning products, such as multipurpose cleaners, degreasers, and floor cleaners, as well as supplies, such as bathroom tissue, facial tissue, industrial wipes and rags, and plastic trash bags. Although environmental risks, building use, and occupant needs will vary from building to building, the recommended ingredients to avoid and alternative products to consider are applicable to all buildings. Each agency, municipality, and business must decide which environmental issues are most important locally, which heath and safety concerns are relevant, and which cleaning products and supplies make the most sense environmentally, practically, and economically.


What Are the Health and Safety Effects of Traditional Cleaning Products?

The professional cleaning industry strives to make the indoor environment clean, safe, and hygienic. Unfortunately, harmful side effects on human health and safety are associated with certain cleaning products and practices. For these reasons, environmental considerations should be a large part of janitorial management.

Health impacts from traditional cleaning practices and products affect both product users and building occupants. Janitorial staff often have direct contact with high concentrations of cleaning chemicals and therefore may suffer serious and direct injury. Occupants might be exposed to lower levels but over longer periods of time (longer hours each day and more days per year).

Both janitorial staff and building occupants can receive either "acute" or "chronic" exposure. Acute exposure means a single large exposure to a toxic substance, which may result in severe health problems or death. Acute exposures usually last no longer than a day, as compared to chronic exposures, which refer to many exposures over an extended period of time or over a significant fraction of a human's lifetime (7 years or more). Chronic exposure can cause long-term serious health effects.

Detailed health and safety side effects associated with specific chemicals can be found in several tables at the end of this chapter. Effects include:

Acute:

  • Burns to eyes and skin: Burns can be caused in several ways, including contact with fire from a chemical that has ignited or contact with an acid or alkalis.

  • Blindness: Eye contact with certain chemicals can lead to blindness or reduced eye functioning.

  • Frostbite from cold aerosol temperatures: Aerosols often project their contents quickly and at very low temperatures. Contact as the substance discharges can lead to frostbite.

  • Poisoning: Certain chemicals are toxic to humans. When they are absorbed by the body, they poison or contaminate human organs, leading to a range of health problems, including temporary illness, long-term injury, or death.

  • Headaches: Headaches can result from a number of exposures to cleaning chemicals, including inhalation.

  • Nausea or other gastrointestinal ailments: Gastrointestinal ailments can result from ingestion of harmful chemicals or as a side effect of chemical sensitivity or allergy.

Chronic:

  • Reproductive disorders: Certain substances can cause harmful reproductive disorders such as birth defects in unborn children, damage to the male or female reproductive system, or may impact the cognitive development of the fetus child.

  • Cancer: Substances that cause cancer, known as carcinogens, are found in solid, liquid and gaseous form, and several are ingredients in traditional cleaning products.

  • Respiratory ailments: Chemicals in cleaning products and the vapors they emit can cause respiratory ailments such as allergies, asthma, reduced lung capacity, and injury to internal organs when absorbed by the bloodstream.

  • Endocrine disruption: A variety of chemicals in cleaning products are endocrine disruptors-external agents that interfere with or mimic in some way natural hormones in the body. Endocrine disruption might result in cancer, harm to male and female reproductive systems, thyroid damage, or other adverse consequences.

  • Chemical sensitization: This is an allergic condition that usually affects the skin or lungs. Once exposure to a substance has caused a reaction, the individual may be sensitized to it, and further exposure may elicit an adverse reaction, even at low levels.

  • Allergies: Certain chemicals induce an allergic reaction in individuals who are sensitive to them. Reactions can be mild or severe, depending upon the amount and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Reactions may include wheezing, skin irritation, and nausea, and can lead to serious harm or even death if not treated quickly and properly.

Acute and Chronic:

  • Central nervous system disorders: The central nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and their connecting nerves. Several chemicals have irreversible effects on the central nervous system.

  • Mild or severe irritation of the skin and eyes: This can occur when chemicals come into contact with the skin or eyes. Symptoms of irritation include swelling, itching, or reddening.

  • Kidney and liver damage: Several substances cause irreversible damage to the kidneys and liver as the body tries to detoxify itself after exposure.

Chemicals come in contact with the human body in several ways. Most contact results from improper handling and failure to follow directions (see Chapter 4 for more information on green cleaning practices), but indirect contact also occurs.

  • Breathing or inhalation: Some gases and airborne particles, created by the evaporation of cleaning products and the disturbance of small bits of solid material during and after cleaning, can seriously harm humans.

  • Skin, dermal barrier: Accidental spills and splashes and improper use of cleaning products can result in skin irritation or more serious internal injury. Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), burns, sensitivity, and poisoning can occur when the skin is superficially irritated by harmful chemicals. Certain chemicals can also penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and damage internal organs.

  • Ingestion, eating, and drinking: Improper storage and misuse of cleaning chemicals, especially around food service areas, can lead to accidental ingestion. Ingested chemicals enter the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract, causing injury to it and other internal organs.

What is Sick Building Syndrome?

Poor indoor air quality and improper cleaning techniques can lead to "sick building syndrome." "Sick" buildings exhibit undesirable indoor environments that cause a variety of unhealthy symptoms, including:

  • Sensory irritation in the eyes, nose, and throat leading to pain, dryness, stinging, hoarseness, and voice problems.

    Skin irritation that manifests itself as pain or reddening, smarting, itching, or dry skin.

  • Neurotoxic symptoms that are associated with headaches, sluggishness, mental and physical fatigue, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, dizziness, intoxication, and vomiting.

  • Hypersensitivity reactions that include runny nose, teary eyes, asthma-like response, and hyperventilation.

  • Odor and taste symptoms that include changed sensitivity in smelling and tasting as well as impressions of unpleasant odors and tastes.

It is important to note that in reality, there are no "sick buildings," only mismanaged or misguided maintenance practices that create an unhealthy environment.


What Are the Environmental Impacts of Traditional Cleaning Products?

Not only do many traditional cleaning products affect human health and safety, but many also contain ingredients that are harmful to the environment. A number of environmental impacts-including effects on fish, birds, other wildlife, and ecosystems-can result from these products, depending upon the specific chemical ingredients, manufacturing methods, use, and disposal practices.

Janitorial products can contaminate the environment in many ways, from pouring chemicals and wastewater down the drain and into the local water supply, gas emissions into the air via circulation through the indoor ventilation system, and during the treatment and disposal of chemical wastes. These are known as "downstream" effects, as they happen during or after the use of the products. Many of the same environmental effects are also created "upstream," during the initial development and manufacture of the products in laboratories and factories. Thus, as janitors reduce their use of hazardous products, they can reduce the environmental effects at a number of different stages of the products' life cycle.

The following are some of the environmental impacts associated with cleaning products:

  • Bioaccumulation refers to the increase in concentration of toxic substances in living organisms. The toxins accumulate because contaminated air, water, or food, are consumed faster than the toxins can be metabolized and excreted. Similarly, the biological magnification of certain "persistent" substances, such as pesticides that do not readily biodegrade or heavy metals, describes their movement up the food chain, as they work their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals, or humans. The substances become concentrated in tissues or internal organs as they move up the chain.

  • Ozone depletion refers to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, which shields the Earth from harmful amounts of ultraviolet radiation. Ozone depletion is caused by the breakdown of certain chlorine- and/or bromine-containing compounds (chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, and halons) when they reach the stratosphere and quickly destroy ozone molecules.

  • Toxicity describes the degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans or animals.

  • Eutrophication is the natural process by which a lake, estuary, or bay gradually ages and becomes more productive (i.e., more nutrients, more biological activity). Human-induced pollutants, such as cleaning products, that make their way into water bodies can aggravate the process by adding an abundance of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, to a water body. The result is over-abundant plant life that steals precious resources, such as oxygen and sunlight, from other aquatic organisms, causing accelerated aging of the water body.

  • Endocrine disruption can cause hormonal imbalance in wildlife which may result in a failure to reproduce effectively.

  • Water pollution results from the contamination of water through direct sources (e.g., factories) or indirect sources (e.g., pesticide runoff). Chemical factories and improper storage and disposal of cleaning products can contribute to water pollution. Weather patterns and human activities constantly circulate water and any pollution it contains throughout the environment, which creates local, regional, and global effects.

  • Air pollution: Some cleaning products contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can escape during product use. VOCs have been linked to smog formation, which pollutes the air and causes a number of respiratory and other health problems.

What Attributes Should I Consider When Selecting Green Cleaning Products?

Using products that minimize negative human health and environmental impacts is an important and challenging step in greening janitorial services. Janitorial managers and contractors are faced with the daunting task of choosing products that produce effective, hygienic results while minimizing risk to employees, building occupants, and the environment.

Janitorial staff are likely to use two main categories of products: general supplies and cleaning chemicals. These product categories have specific attributes that can be examined and adjusted to increase environmental performance. The following sections outline some of these attributes, including some of the standards that can be used to transition to a green cleaning program. Generally, the standards can be used in two ways: purchasers can buy products that are already certified by a particular standard (e.g., Green Seal), or managers can review the standards and use them as guidelines when selecting and purchasing cleaning products.

General Supplies

The manufacture of any product involves the use of raw materials and energy. These materials, such as petroleum for plastic and trees for paper, are often mined, extracted, or harvested from the Earth. Sometimes manufacturers can recycle used materials instead of extracting "virgin" materials, which can save energy and natural resources and prevent pollution. To encourage this process, building and janitorial managers should try to use products with recovered material (recycled) content whenever possible. In addition to conserving resources, using recycled-content products helps keep trash out of landfills and incinerators, each of which can pose environmental risks. Furthermore, federal agencies are required to purchase recycled-content products designated in the Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (see Chapter 1 for more information about CPG).

In an effort to prevent waste in the first place (also called source reduction), janitorial or procurement managers can take steps to reduce the amount of product or packaging that must be throw away. Non-chemical janitorial supplies, such as paper towels, facial tissue, bathroom tissue, industrial wipes and rags, and plastic trash bags, all contribute to the solid waste stream. For example, roll paper towels perforated into small sheets are less wasteful than individual folded towels, as each individual uses less paper. In addition, purchasing janitorial supplies that have been manufactured and shipped with less packaging will help reduce the amount of waste they create when thrown away.

In addition to recycled content, paper janitorial products can be made without traditional chlorine bleaching processes, which can be harmful to human health and the environment. Bleaching paper with chlorine-based compounds releases extremely toxic chemicals into the environment. The most dangerous is dioxin. Once released into the environment, dioxins are persistent because natural bacteria cannot effectively break it down. It also bioaccumulates and bio-magnifies. Paper products can remain unbleached or they can be bleached with hydrogen peroxide or other less-toxic alternatives, especially in the case of paper towels, bathroom and facial tissue. Bleaching options differ depending upon the raw material used.

Sample of Environmental Attributes for Janitorial Supplies

  • Recovered materials: These are materials that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste. This term does not include materials and byproducts generated from, and commonly reused within, an original manufacturing process.

  • Post consumer materials: These materials have served their intended use and have been diverted or recovered from waste destined for disposal, having completed life as a consumer item. Postconsumer materials are part of the broader category of recovered materials.

  • Recycled content: This term refers to the amount or percent of recovered material that a finished product contains.

  • Recycled or recyclable packaging/returnable or refillable packaging: Agencies procuring green cleaning can specify these waste prevention measures.

  • Process chlorine free: This term refers to recycled-content papers that were manufactured without the use of chlorine compounds to re-bleach the paper during the recycling process.

  • Totally chlorine free: This term applies to virgin papers and tissues (containing zero post-consumer recycled content) that were manufactured without the use of chlorine compounds to bleach the pulp during all parts of the papermaking process. Recycled-content paper cannot be totally chlorine free unless all discarded paper used to manufacture the recycled paper was chlorine free, which is a highly unlikely occurrence.

Although federal agencies are required to purchase most paper products with recycled content, which would negate totally chlorine free bleaching processes as an option, they are allowed to purchase totally chlorine free paper if they determine that it is an important performance requirement. Nonfederal agencies, however, can choose which environmental impact is more relevant to their locality and environmental mission: eliminating toxic chlorine compounds from the environment or recycling paper recovered from solid waste. (See Appendix A for a list of environmentally preferable janitorial supplies)

Cleaning Products

Because so many different cleaning chemicals exist and because different janitorial crews can use different practices and quantities, it is important to note that hazards are best evaluated on a product-by-product or chemical-by-chemical basis. This type of evaluation provides users with complete information about the product, including the risks of individual ingredients and their combined effect in one product.

Several standard-setting organizations develop guidance to assist in evaluating cleaning products. The Greenseal standard, which was developed recently with substantial industry and environmental stakeholder involvement is comprehensive in scope. DOI recommends following Green Seal standards, which are the best known and most widely accepted guidelines available. Janitorial mangers and purchasers should carefully review Green Seal standards and adapt or expand them to meet local needs and concerns. Green cleaning is still a relatively new concept, and managers who follow Green Seal standards will be on the cutting edge of green cleaning and have a head start on standards that will more than likely be mandatory in the future. See the attached Green Seal standard for more detailed information.

Attributes differ for every green cleaning program depending upon a variety of factors, such as local and regional environmental issues; health, safety, or environmental priorities; state and local regulations; building characteristics; and availability of alternative products. The following environmental attributes are some examples of those that appear in Green Seal standards and other green janitorial specifications.

A Sampling of Environmental Attributes for Cleaning Products

  • Must not contain any carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens designated by federal law.

  • Must not contain any ozone-depleting compounds, greenhouse gases, or substances that contribute to photochemical smog and poor indoor air quality.

  • Must have a pH between 4 and 9.

  • Must have a flash point higher than 200º F.

  • Must not be corrosive or irritating to the skin or eyes.

  • VOC levels must meet or be less volatile than the California Code of Regulations maximum allowable VOC levels for appropriate cleaning product categories.

  • Must not be delivered in aerosol cans.

  • Must not contain petrochemical-derived fragrances.

  • Must not contain dyes.

  • Must not contain ingredients included on the Chesapeake Bay Program's Toxics of Concern list.

  • Must be dispensed through automatic systems in order to reduce employee contact with the concentrate and to ensure proper dilution ratios.

  • Must not contain any chemicals under Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA).

  • Must not constitute hazardous wastes, as defined in 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part 261, when offered for disposal.

  • Must not be toxic to humans or aquatic life.

  • Must not contain endocrine modifiers, alkyl phenyl ethoxylates, dibutyl phthalate, or heavy metals (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium).

  • Must be biodegradable.

  • Must not contain petroleum distillates.

  • Must not be combustible.

  • Must not contain more than 0.5 percent by weight of phosphorous.

  • Must be biobased (i.e., utilize biological products or renewable, domestic agricultural [plant, animal, or marine] or forestry materials).

  • Must not contain chlorinated solvents.

  • Must not contain persistent or bioaccumulative substances.

How to Evaluate Janitorial Products

Traditionally, standards of cleanliness focus on outward appearance-whether an area looks clean after the application of certain products and cleaning techniques. Green cleaning takes these traditional assessments one step further by considering additional standards, such as preventing indoor air pollution or reducing toxicity and packaging waste.

Environmentally responsible cleaning can be achieved in more than one way, just as there are many options when purchasing green cleaning products. An effective green cleaning program will be tailored to include issues of specific concern, such as local smog prevention or poor building ventilation. It should also include an evaluation of the chemicals currently in use as part of the determination of overall risk.

Often, using quality environmentally friendly cleaners in place of harsh, toxic chemical products does not add extra time or effort to the cleaning routine. Building managers should talk to their cleaning product supplier about environmental cleaning alternatives. More detailed information on how to set up a green cleaning program can be found in Section IV: Management Approach.

Here are a few useful ways to evaluate the environmental attributes of janitorial products:

  • Research the health and safety issues associated with the ingredients of cleaning products. This can be done by evaluating the MSDS sheets for each product or by using outside sources.

  • Evaluate federal, state, and local regulations for hazardous substances that might be found in cleaning products (see Chapter 1 for information on mandates and regulations).

  • Contact the manufacturer for more detailed information on ingredients, use, disposal, and other topics.

  • Review standards set by third-party testing and standard-setting organizations (e.g., Green Seal).

  • Review selection criteria established by state governments (e.g., Massachusetts); local governments (e.g., Santa Monica); and other leaders in the green building industry. (See Chapter 5 for information on federal, state, and local approaches.)

  • Contact other organizations with exemplary green cleaning programs or guidance on harmful substances. For example, for information about carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens, contact:

    • National Toxicology Program (NTP), Annual Report on Carcinogens: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov.

    • Known Human Carcinogens

    • Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogens

    • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): http://www.iarc.fr.

    • California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65): www.leginfo.ca.gov.

    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulated carcinogens: www.osha.gov.

     

Ingredients to Avoid

CAS Number
 
Ingredient Name
 
Health Effect from Full-Strength Ingredient
NFPA Rating
Eye Skin Skin Absorb
Inhalation Chronic
H F R
00100-51-6 Benzyl Alcohol
B/BL Sev Irr
Yes Sev IRR
Carcinogen 2  1  0
00075-45-6 CFC-22; Chlorodifluoro Methane
FB FB No
FB
2  0  1
68603-42-9 Coconut Oil Diethanolamine
Irr Irr No Slight Suspected Carcinogen; Skin Allergy
1  1  0
00111-42-2 Diethanoloamine Irr Irr No Slight Suspected Carcinogen; Skin Allergy
1  1  0
00075-68-3 HCFC-142b FB FB No FB

00120-40-1 Lauric Acid Diethanoloamine




Some evidence of carcinogenic effects

00071-55-6 Methyl Chloroform: 1,1,1-TCE
Irr Irr Yes Irr
Damage to Liver, Kidney, Heart; CNS
3  1  0
00078-93-3 Methyl Ethyl Ketone
B Sev Irr
Yes Sev IRR
CNS; GI Tract: Liver; Reprofetal
1  3  0
00091-20-3 Napthalene D/BL Irr Yes Irr Potential Carcinogen; Damage to GI Tract; Blood; Liver; Kidney; Repro
2  2  0
186662-53-8 Nitrilotriacetic Acid




Carcinogenic - Prop. 65

00106-46-7 Paradichloro Benzene
Irr Irr   Yes Cacinogen - Prop. 65; Liver & Kidney Damage from inhalation 2  2  0
00127-18-4 Tetrachloreoethylene; Perchloroethylene
B Irr
Some Yes Carcinogenic; reproductive damage; liver & Kidney damage
2  0  0
00108-88-3 Toulene D Irr Yes Yes CNS Impairment; Liver & Kidney Damage
2  3  0
00079-01-6 Trichloroethylene D Irr No Yes Liver, Reproductive, & CNS damage; Prop. 65 Carcinogen
2  1  0

Abbreviations

B: Causes burns to eyes or skin, which may heal over time.

BL: Contact with eyes quickly causes permanent blindness.

B/BL: Burns eyes, in some cases causing blindness.

CAS: Chemical Abstract Service, who assigns a number to every chemical ingredient.

CNS: Central Nervous System

D: Causes damage to eyes or skin, which if not taken care of will be permanent.

FB: May cause frostbite from cold temperature of aerosol.

Irr: Irritant (victim will usually only be temporarily inconvenienced).

NFPA: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemicals. H = Health Hazard; F = Flammability Hazard; R = Reactivity Hazard. Ratings of this sort are summaries, and therefore should be used with caution and some skepticism. Consider individual hazards to eyes, skin, etc. to determine the overall risk that each ingredient poses to the user.

PBT: Refers to chemicals that are persistent, that bioaccumulate, and that are toxic.

Prop. 65: Listed by California's Workers' Right-To-Know Legislation.

Sev Irr: Severe Irritant (victim will usually be temporarily incapacitated).

Skin Absorb: This ingredient easily absorbs through skin and will poison the liver, kidneys, or other organs as the body tries to eliminate it.


Ingredients to Avoid if Possible/Otherwise Use With Extreme Care

CAS Number
Ingredient Name Health Effects from full-strength Ingredient
NFPA
Rating
Eye Skin Skin Absorb
Inhalation Chronic H F R
00111-2-76-2 Butoxy Ethanol
Irr Irr Yes
Reproductive & Fetal Effects; Liver & Kidney Damagel Blood Damage
2 2 0
00090-2-43-7 Phenyl Phenol
B B
Burns IARC Group 3 Carcinogen (Insufficient Evidence)
1 1 0
00067-64-1 Acetone B Irr Yes Yes Potential Reproductive Effects; Liver & Kidney Damage; CNS Depression
1 3 0
07664-41-7 Ammonia B/BL D
Sev Irr/Burns
Kidneys/Liver/CNS 3 0 0
01341-49-7 Ammonium Bifluoride
BL D Yes Burns   3
01336-21-6 Ammonium Hydroxide
BL D
Yes; D
Cataracts; glaucoma
3 1 2
00628-63-7 Amyl Acetate
Irr Irr No Irr Kidney damage
2 3 1
00105-60-2 Caprolactam Irr Irr Yes Yes/Irr CNS/Neurological
00124-07-2 Caprylic Acid
B/BL D Yes Sev Irr
Blood 2 1 0
00108-93-0 Cyclohexanol B Irr Yes Irr CNS/Liver/Kidney/Repro 1 2 0
00084-74-2 Dibutyl Phthalate
B Sev Irr

Irr Endocrine/Mutagen/Repro/Testes/Kidney 0 1 0
00112-34-5 Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether
Irr Irr Yes Slight Kidney Damage;CNS Effects
1 2 0
07647-01-1 Hydrochloric Acid
BL D No

3 0 0
07722-84-1 Hydrogen Peroxide
BL D No Burns;Fatal
2 0 3
00079-14-1 Hydroxyacetic Acid
BL D No Yes Burns; Damage

00141-43-5 Monoethanolamine D B Yes
Liver & Kidney Damage; Fetal Damage
2 2 0
00110-91-8 Morpholine BL D Yes Sev Irr

3 3 1
00123-86-4 Butyl Acetate
B Irr Yes Irr CNS/Mutagen 1 3 0
09016-45-9 Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylate
Irr Irr

Endocrine PBT (Alkyl Phenol Ethoxyalate)

09036-19-5 Octyl Phenol Ethoxylate
Sev Irr
Sev Irr


Endocrine PBT (Alkyl Phenol Ethoxyalate)

07664-38-2 Phosphoric Acid
BL D
No

3 0 0
26027-38-3 Polyethylene Monophenyl Ether
Irr/B Irr/B   Irr Endocrine Disruptor
1 1 1
02893-78-9 Bleach; Sodium Hypochlorite






00102-71-6 Triethanolamine D B Yes Slight Liver & Kidney Damage; IARC Group 3 Carcinogen (Insufficient Evidence)
2 1 1
00121-44-8 Triethylamine B Irr Yes Irr Kidneys/Repro 3 3 0
08006-64-2 Turpentine B Irr Yes Yes Kidney, Bladder, CNS Damage; Possibly Harms Fetus
   3 0
01330-20-7 Xylene B Irr
Yes Yes;Irr Liver, Kidney, CNS, Spleen; IARC Group 3 (Insufficient Evidence)
2 3 0

Abbreviations

B: Causes burns to eyes or skin, which may heal over time.

BL: Contact with eyes quickly causes permanent blindness.

B/BL: Burns eyes, in some cases causing blindness.

CAS: Chemical Abstract Service, who assigns a number to every chemical ingredient.

CNS: Central Nervous System

p> D: Causes damage to eyes or skin, which if not taken care of will be permanent.
FB: May cause frostbite from cold temperature of aerosol. Irr: Irritant (victim will usually only be temporarily inconvenienced).

NFPA: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemicals. H = Health Hazard; F = Flammability Hazard; R = Reactivity Hazard. Ratings of this sort are summaries, and therefore should be used with caution and some skepticism. Consider individual hazards to eyes, skin, etc. to determine the overall risk that each ingredient poses to the user.

PBT: Refers to chemicals that are persistent, that bioaccumulate, and that are toxic.

Prop. 65: Listed by California's Workers' Right-To-Know Legislation.

Sev Irr: Severe Irritant (victim will usually be temporarily incapacitated).

Skin Absorb: This ingredient easily absorbs through skin and will poison the liver, kidneys, or other organs as the body tries to eliminate it.


Ingredients to Use with Extreme Care

CAS Number
 
Ingredient Name
 
Health Effects from Full-Strength
NFPA
Rating
Eye Skin Skin Absorb
Inhalation Chronic H F R
00872-50-4 Methyl Pyrolidinone
B B
Sev Irr

2 1 0
08001-54-5 Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride
B B
B

00334-48-5 Capric Acid
Irr Irr Yes Irr
1 1 0
00111-46-6 Diethylene Glycol
Irr Irr Yes Yes Liver/Kidney/CNS Toxicant

00115-10-6 Dimethyl Ether
Sev Irr
Sev Irr

Sev Irr

2 4 1
29911-28-2 Dipropylene Glycol Butoxy Ether
Sev Irr
Sev Irr
Yes Sev Irr
Unknown
25155-30-0 Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate
B Sev Irr

Sev Irr
Unknown 2  1 0
27176-87-0 Dodecylbenzne Sulfonic Acid
D B Possibly


00064-17-5 Ethanol
  Yes Yes Liver/Kidney/CNS/Repro
00122-99-6 Ethylene Glycol Phenyl Ether
B B No
Ingestion leads to Kidney, Lungs, Liver, Heart Damage & CNS effects

00067-63-0 Isopropanol B Irr Yes Yes;Irr Kidney; Repro; CNS
1 4 2
08008-20-6 Kerosene B Irr
Yes;Irr
1 2 1
00067-56-1 Methanol

No Yes

02809-21-4 Phosphonic Acid






07320-34-5 Potassium Diphosphate
Irr/B Irr/B
Irr/B

01310-58-3 Potassium Hydroxide






00107-98-2 Propylene Glycol Monornethyl Ether
Irr Irr No Irr CNS (Inhalation or Ingestion)
0 3 0
07681-38-1 Sodium Bisulfate
BL D No Burns; Fatal


00497-19-8 Sodium Carbonate
BL D No Burns

01310-73-2 Sodium Hydroxide
BL D No Burns
2 0 1
06834-92-0 Sodium Metasilicate





D D
05329-14-6 Sulfamic Acid
B B No


08052-41-3 Stoddard Solvent
Irr Irr
Irr CNS 0 2 0

Abbreviations

B: Causes burns to eyes or skin, which may heal over time.

BL: Contact with eyes quickly causes permanent blindness.

B/BL: Burns eyes, in some cases causing blindness.

CAS: Chemical Abstract Service, who assigns a number to every chemical ingredient.

CNS: Central Nervous System

D: Causes damage to eyes or skin, which if not taken care of will be permanent.

FB: May cause frostbite from cold temperature of aerosol.

Irr: Irritant (victim will usually only be temporarily inconvenienced).

NFPA: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemicals. H = Health Hazard; F = Flammability Hazard; R = Reactivity Hazard. Ratings of this sort are summaries, and therefore should be used with caution and some skepticism. Consider individual hazards to eyes, skin, etc., to determine the overall risk that each ingredient poses to the user.

PBT: Refers to chemicals that are persistent, that bioaccumulate, and that are toxic.

Prop. 65: Listed by California's Workers' Right-To-Know Legislation.

Sev Irr: Severe Irritant (victim will usually be temporarily incapacitated).

Skin Absorb: This ingredient easily absorbs through skin and will poison the liver, kidneys, or other organs as the body tries to eliminate it.


Ingredients to Use with Routine Care

CAS Number
 
Ingredient Name
 
Health Effects from Full-Strength Ingredient
NFPA
Rating
Eye Skin Skin Absorb
Inhalation Chronic H F R
00770-35-4 Phenoxy Propanol
Irr Irr
Yes; Irr


00064-19-7 Acetic Acid
B B No Yes

00120-32-1 Chlorophene





05989-27-5 Limonene Irr Irr No Irr Some people are allergic to smell
1 2 0
00111-90-0 Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether
B Irr No Low Kidney damage; reproductive damage
1 1 0
00111-77-3 Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether
Irr Irr No Irr Possible reproductive effects
2 2 0
02809-21-4 Diphosphonic Acid




Inhibits bone formation

34590-94-8 Dipropylene Glcol Methyl Ether
Irr Irr Yes
Liver damage (from exposure to very high levels)

17572-97-3 EDTA Tetrapotassium Salt
Irr Irr Irr


00064-02-8 Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid
Irr Irr No


00097-86-9 Isobutyl Methacrylate
Irr Irr Irr


68131-39-5 Linear Alcohol  Ethoxylate





67741-65-7 Mineral Spirits

Irr
Slight
1 2 0
08030-30-6 Naphtha (Crude Coal Tar) Benzine
Irr Irr
Irr Kidney & CNS damage; repro damage
3
05324-84-5 Octane Sulfonic Acid
Irr Irr Yes

1 1 0
68441-17-8 Oxidized Polyethylene
Irr Irr
Irr

63148-62-9 Poly Dimethyl Siloxane
Irr
Irr Irr

07757-82-6 Sodium Sulfate
Irr Irr No Irr  
07758-29-4 Sodium Tripoly Phosphate
Irr Irr



01300-72-7 Sodium Xylene Sulfonate
Irr Irr Yes

1  0  0
64742-88-7 Stoddard Solvent (Naphtha)
Irr Irr
  CNS effects

00078-51-3 Tri Butoxy Ethyl Phosphate






08042-47-5 White Mineral Oil
B Irr Irr
Lung damage at high concentrations

119345-04-9 Disulfonate





00093-83-4 Oleic Acid Diethanolamine






10486-00-7 Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate


Irr

1 1 0
00107-21-1 Ethylene Glycol
Irr Irr
Slight
1 1 0


Abbreviations

B: Causes burns to eyes or skin, which may heal over time.

BL: Contact with eyes quickly causes permanent blindness.

B/BL: Burns eyes, in some cases causing blindness.

CAS: Chemical Abstract Service, who assigns a number to every chemical ingredient.

CNS: Central Nervous System

D: Causes damage to eyes or skin, which if not taken care of will be permanent.

FB: May cause frostbite from cold temperature of aerosol.

Irr: Irritant (victim will usually only be temporarily inconvenienced).

NFPA: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed a system for indicating the health, flammability and reactivity hazards of chemicals. H = Health Hazard; F = Flammability Hazard; R = Reactivity Hazard. Ratings of this sort are summaries, and therefore should be used with caution and some skepticism. Consider individual hazards to eyes, skin, etc., to determine the overall risk that each ingredient poses to the user.

PBT: Refers to chemicals that are persistent, that bioaccumulate, and that are toxic.

Prop. 65: Listed by California's Workers' Right-To-Know Legislation.

Sev Irr: Severe Irritant (victim will usually be temporarily incapacitated).

Skin Absorb: This ingredient easily absorbs through skin and will poison the liver, kidneys, or other organs as the body tries to eliminate it.